My research agenda beyond my first book reflects my interests in South-South relations, security-development nexus, post-colonial theory, and post-Western International Relations. Some of the projects I am excited to be working on include theorizing International Relations concepts from Global South perspectives, and extrapolating from my work on China-Africa to understand post-Western perspectives on hegemony, development, and power relations.
Knowledge Production and Hegemony from within the Global South: Assessing the state of teaching on, and thinking about, Africa in Chinese IR (with Ilaria Carrozza)
There is a significant cluster of IR scholars who argue for the importance of including the Global South in International Relations (IR) scholarship, theorizing the relevance of postcolonial theory to IR, and paying attention to emerging powers as well as other Global South states in shaping the global order. This article acknowledges existing and growing non-Western IR literature that aims at diversifying the epistemologies and methodologies of knowing and doing IR but critiques this scholarship for not probing the epistemic hegemony and knowledge production hierarchies that are emerging from within the Global South. Empirically, the authors draw on the case of studying and researching “Africa” not in the context of the continent’s relations to European institutions and the “Western” scholarly gaze, but with reference to the way Africa is taught and researched in Chinese academic communities.
Power to the Guanxi? China’s relational productive power
Do traditional conceptualizations of power in IR help us make sense of China’s foreign policy conduct in the Global South? Do all rising powers project their influence in the same (military/hard power) way? This paper assumes that the answer to these questions is ‘not necessarily.’ By examining China’s foreign policy towards African states, the paper centers on the role of guanxi (Network of relations) in projecting China’s influence in Africa. Guanxi, in this case, is created and nurtured through routinized Beijing-sponsored capacity building programs and technology transfer workshops. The paper argues that by taking power as productive and governance as based on relationality, capacity building programs for Africans are viewed as spaces for expert knowledge production and network expansion. It puts relations and relationality as a core characteristic of Chinese foreign policy conduct, and by doing so it demonstrates that China’s investments in capacity building programs for military officials, media experts, etc. are indeed more successful power projection mechanisms than ‘hard/military’ aspects of power.
Power or Influence? Making Sense of China’s Evolving Party-to-party Diplomacy in Africa
China became Africa’s biggest infrastructure contractor surpassing Europe and the U.S. since the late 2000s. Chinese state-owned Enterprises have won a variety of infrastructure contracts as diverse as highways, dams, housing units, hospitals and schools among other projects. Yet, Chinese foreign policy towards Africa goes well beyond construction projects and investments in mega-projects to include substantial funds allocated for professionalization training programs and technology transfers. Indeed, there exist several cases of infrastructure projects which have been completed but due to lack of appropriate training in maintenance, they go unused and quickly decay. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to look beyond buildings and seek to uncover the implications of China’s increasing investments in human resource development for Africans. It became evident from China-Africa summit action plans that Chinese foreign policy in Africa is interested in enhancing people-to-people exchanges, increasing student scholarships for African in China, and promoting governance and leadership trainings through Party-to-Party (P2P) exchanges. Although these might all fit under the so-called soft power umbrella, in this paper I argue that this kind of intangible investments in human capital are as central to China’s foreign policy making in Africa and through the Belt and Road. Building bridges between Chinese party officials and African counterparts allows for long-term networks and working relations with Africa’s future leaders in ways that outlast the lush of new infrastructure projects.
Political Nostalgia and the Empire to be (ongoing project)
(with Dan Large) China’s Security Strategy in Mali (ongoing project)